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国际贸易与合规
跨境贸易的常识产权保护
Intellectual Property Protection in Cross-border Trade
发布时间: 2019-12-12 16:34      来源: 送彩金500的网站大白菜
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中国浙江天册律师事务所  王立新

常识产权保护已经深入成为中国企业国际贸易合规管理非常重要的组成部分,这不仅体现在中国企业在跨境贸易中,基于常识产权争议的经验教训而培养形成的强烈的常识产权保护和风险防范意识,同时也体现在由于中国司法审判实践所体现的保护理念的不断更新,进而对企业的常识产权合规管理提出了更高、更富有挑战性的要求。对此,我想充分利用这一机会从以下几方面与各位参会嘉宾分享我的观察与思考。

IP protection has become a very important component rooted in the compliance management of Chinese companies when conducting international trade, which is not only reflected in the strong awareness of IP protection and risk prevention developed from the experience and lessons learned from IP disputes, but also in higher and more challenging requirements for enterprises’ IP compliance management as a result of the continuous upgrade of the conception of protection reflected in Chinese judicial practices. In this regard, I’d like to avail myself of this opportunity to share my observations and thoughts with the distinguished participants from the following aspects.

首先,关于在跨境贸易中的常识产权保护意识问题。中国的企业已经从过去单纯的被动应对跨境贸易所产生的常识产权权利主张,转为主动寻求常识产权的潜在风险防范。在为客户的服务过程中,国际贸易中常识产权保护和风险防范条款是律师审查的重点。客户在作为出口货物采购的买方时,通常会明确告知卖方的产品将要用于出口销售的区域,要求其保证出售的产品不存在侵犯进口国任何第三方专利、著作权、商标、商业秘密或其它形式常识产权的情形,以及一旦发生第三方提出常识产权主张时的协助义务和救济措施。同时,出口企业在某一产品出口前,也会自行委托专门机构对在进口国的包括专利、商标等风险因素进行检索和排查,以避免或减少侵权风险。同样,在国际经济贸易合作和投资活动中,涉及交易方常识产权信息的查询,例如权利取得证明,既有或潜在争议情形的披露要求等,均已经作为基本内容和程序之一列入尽职调查范围。

First of all, in terms of the awareness of IP protection in cross-border trade, Chinese companies have changed from the past practice of merely responding passively to IP claims arising out of cross-border trade to proactively seeking prevention against the potential risks. Terms regarding IP protection is the key point of review when lawyers provide legal service in international trade to their clients. As a common practice, where a client is the purchaser of exported products, it will clearly inform the seller of the regions where the products to be exported and sold, and require seller’s representation of non-infringement of any third-party patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret or other forms of IP rights in the importing country, as well as the obligations of assistance and relief measures in the event of any third-party IP claim. Meanwhile, prior to exporting of certain products, the company will on its own, engage special agencies to search and examine the risk factors including such as patents or trademarks in the destination country, to avoid or reduce the risk of infringement. Likewise, in international economic and trade cooperation and outbound investment activities, the inquiry into IP information of the counterparties has been incorporated as basic contents and procedures in due diligence process, like the proof of rights obtainment and disclosure of existing or potential disputes.

另一方面,作为双向风险防范的重要举措之一,出口企业也非常注重常识产权的主动性保护措施,例如通过《商标国际注册马德里协定》提交出口产品的商标申请;通过专利合作条约(PCT)申请,以中国专利为优先权通过PCT申请国际专利,从而有效地实现自身常识产权保护的目的。

On the other hand, export enterprises also attach great importance to initiative acts for IP protection as one of the two-aspect risk prevention measures, for example, to effectively protect their own IP, the companies will register trademarks for export products under the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, and taking Chinese patents as priority, apply for international patents through PCT.

而近年来,数据出境合规也列入了跨境贸易的合规性管理范畴。例如,中国的《网络安全法》第三十七条,关键信息基础设施的运营者在最全送彩金白菜网站和国境内运营中收集和产生的个人信息和重要数据应当在境内存储。因业务需要,确需向境外提供的,应当进行安全评估。今年8月出台的《中国(上海)自由贸易试验区临港新片区管理办法》第三十六和三十七条也明确将试点开展数据跨境流动的安全评估,建立跨境数据流通和交易风险评估等数据安全管理机制,开展国际合作规则试点,加大对专利、版权、商业秘密等权利和数据的保护力度。以此,可以预见跨境贸易常识产权合规管理将会体现数据经济时代下新的要求。

While in recent years, cross-border data flow compliance has also been included in the compliance management of cross-border trade. For example, article 37 of Cybersecurity Law provides that the operator of a critical information infrastructure shall store, within the territory of the China, personal information and important data collected and generated during its operation within the territory of China, and where such information and data have to be provided abroad for business purpose, security assessment shall be conducted. In articles 36 and 37 of the newly published Measures for the Administration of the Lin-gang Special Area of China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone in this August, the security assessment on cross-border data flows on a pilot-program basis has been specifically required to established in the special area, as well as data security management mechanisms for cross-border data circulation, transaction risk assessment, etc. It also stipulates that a pilot program of international cooperation rules shall be launched to strengthen protection of the interests and data in patents, copyrights, trade secrets and other rights. As such, it is expected that IP compliance management in cross-border trade will reflect new requirement in the era of data economy.

诚如我此前所提及,中国法院的司法审判思维,也呈现出非常积极和严谨周密的理念,有助于健全中国企业跨境贸易的常识产权保护标准和指引。例如,在对于贴牌加工是否构成商标侵权问题。以往司法实践经验认为,贴牌加工仅属物理贴附行为,加工后的产品并未在中国国内流通,不能被认定为商标意义上的使用行为,据此认为代工厂不承担法律责任。但是近日,中国最高人民法院作出的一份OEM商标侵权案再审判决改变了这类案件的固有裁判观念。

As I mentioned before, the judicial thinking of Chinese courts also presents a very positive and rigorous perception, conducing to improve IP protection standards and guidelines for cross-border trade of Chinese companies. For example, whether OEM constitutes infringement of trademark. According to the past judicial practice experience, OEM only involves physical attaching activities and the processed products are not circulated within China, which cannot be deemed as an act of using trademark. Therefore, OEM factories should not be held liable. Yet recently, a retrial judgment on an OEM trademark infringement case rendered by the Supreme People's Court of China changed the stereotyped view in these kinds of cases.

最高人民法院在判决中指出,面临着经济发展全球化程度不断加深,国际贸易分工与经贸合作日益复杂,审理涉及涉外定牌加工的商标侵权纠纷案件,应当充分考量国内和国际经济发展大局,对特定时期、特定市场、特定交易形式的商标侵权纠纷进行具体分析,准确适用法律。涉外定牌加工贸易方式是中国企业对外贸易的重要方式,随着中国经济发展方式的转变,人们对于在涉外定牌加工中产生的商标侵权问题的认识和纠纷解决,也在不断变化和深化。归根结底,通过司法解决纠纷,在法律适用上,要维护法律制度的统一性,必须澄清和强调不能把某种贸易方式(如该案争议的涉外定牌加工方式)简单地固化为不侵犯商标权的除外情形。商标权作为常识产权,具有地域性,对于没有在中国注册的商标,即使其在外国获得注册,在中国也不享有注册商标专用权,与之相应,中国境内的民事主体所获得的所谓“商标使用授权”,也不属于中国商标法保护的商标合法权利,不能作为不侵犯商标权的抗辩事由。

According to view of the judgment made by the Supreme People’s Court, under the situation of deepening globalization of economic development, increasingly complex division of labor and economic and trade cooperation in international trade, in the trial of trademark infringement cases involving export-related OEM, it shall taken the overall situation of domestic and international economic development into full consideration, a specific analysis shall be made with respect to trademark infringement disputes in a specific period, market and transaction form and the law shall be accurately applied. OEM is an important mode of China's foreign trade. With the transformation of China's economic development models, people's understanding and dispute resolution of trademark infringement in OEM has also been in the dynamic of constant changing and deepening. When coming down to the judicial settlement of disputes,  to maintain the unity of the legal system in terms of the application of laws, it must be clarified and emphasized that  a certain trade mode (such as the export-related OEM in this case) cannot be simply solidified as the exception of non-infringement of trademarks. As an IP right, trademark is of regional nature. Even if it is legally registered in a foreign country, a trademark not registered in China does not enjoy the “exclusive right to use” in China. Accordingly, the so-called "trademark use authorization" obtained by the civil entities in China shall not be deemed as a legal right of trademarks protected under the Trademark Law of China, and thus cannot be used as a pleading for non-infringement of trademark rights. 

上述司法审判的观点,体现了中国法院在常识产权审判实践中具体分析,客观严谨的思路,给贴牌加工贸易的商标合规管理树立了清晰的指引原则。

The above judicial opinions reflect the objective and rigorous analytical thinking of Chinese courts in the practice of IP trial, and set up clear guidelines for the trademark compliance management of OEM trade.

最后,请容许我概括如下:在跨境贸易的合规管理中,进出口企业自身固然需要梳理、排查及有效地实施风险管理,而国际贸易涉及的行政监管、司法审判明确统一的理念和指引,更是为跨境贸易公平、公正和可持续发展创造良好法制秩序的有效保障。

Finally, please allow me to make a summary: as for the compliance management of cross-border trade, the import and export companies per se, need to sort out, examine and effectively implement risk management measures, yet a clear and unified idea and guideline set up by the administrative authorities and judiciary, will be a more effective guarantee to create a good legal order for the fair, just and sustainable development of cross-border trade.

(会议提交材料,非现场稿,稿件未经编辑本人允许不得转载或做商业使用。)

责任编辑: 朱剑
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